What is the difference between the 3-axis, 3+2, and 5-axis machining ?

What is the 3-axis machining method:

The 3-axis machining is performed by the linear feed axes X, Y, and Z. Machining features: The cutting tool orientation remains constant during movement along the entire cutting path. The cutting state of the tip is not perfect in real time.

What is the 3+2 axis machining method:

The two rotary axes first fix the cutting tool in an inclined position and then process it by the feed axes X, Y, Z. This machine is also called a five-axis machine that can be programmed using Siemens’ CYCLE800 function. CYCLE800 is a static plane transformation that defines a rotating work plane in space with 3+2 axis machine machining (eg turret or turntable). In this work plane, you can program 2D ​​or 3D machining operations.

Machining features: The rotary axis is always rotated to the position where the machining plane is perpendicular to the tool axis. The machining plane remains fixed during machining.

What is the 5-axis machining method?

The 5-axis machining is a linear interpolation motion of the feed axes X, Y, Z and any five of the rotation axes A, B, and C around X, Y, and Z. Siemens’ motion conversion instruction TRAORI is well supported for 5-axis conversion.

Machining features: The tool direction can be optimized during the movement along the entire path, while the tool moves linearly. In this way, the optimum cutting state is maintained throughout the path.

Simultaneous machining of 28 parts with five axes

How does the advantage of the five-axis machine manifest? Here is an example of a Haas UMC-750P machine that processes 28 parts at the same time. The cycle time is reduced by combining the design of the turntable and the fixture and the three machining faces of the part in one machining process in a five-axis machining program.

The turntable can expand the original processing space by precise positioning. Well-designed fixtures not only increase the efficiency of the machining but also reduce the idleness of the machine and allow the operator to pull it out.